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程朋朋地质实习总结

发布时间:2016-07-27 09:23:50 点击:

 实习总结

  班级:道桥一班

  姓名:程朋朋

  学号:5708150032

  实习总结

  经过在登封的几天实习,我们对登封的地质状况有了一定的了解。在老师的带领下,我们对以前学的知识进行了回顾,也亲手实践了一番,让我们获益匪浅。

  首先,我们对登封的地理位置,历史及其他方面进行了了解。登封市位于河南省中西部中岳嵩山南麓,市境东西长56公里,南北宽35.5公里,总面积1220平方公里,其中耕地56万亩,辖7镇7乡2个工业区1个办事处,有15个民族,地形以山地丘陵为主属于温带大陆性气候,全市总人口60万。 登封市是省级历史文化名城,是全国著名的“文物之乡”和“武术之乡”。登封历史悠久,据史书记载,中国第一个奴隶制国家夏王朝最早在阳城(今告成镇)建都(禹都阳城),西汉武帝刘彻游篙山,正式设立崇高县,隋代改为嵩阳县。公元696年,武则天登嵩山、封中岳,大功告成,改嵩阳县为登封县,改阳城县为告成县,金代将两县合并为登封县,1994年5月30日经国务院批准登封县撤县设市。 登封矿产资源十分丰富。我市已探明的矿产品种达37种,具有储量大、品位高、易开采等优点。其中煤炭探明储量15.8亿吨,远景储量30亿吨,1991年被确定为全国15个重点开发区之一,被能源部定为全国100个商品煤基地之一。铝钒土储量2.4亿吨,是河南省两个铝钒土基地之一。石灰石储量30亿吨。现代装饰材料花岗石储量30亿吨,品种齐全,质量上乘。硅矿储量8亿吨。被明代大药物学家李时珍誉为神奇的“嵩山药石”——麦饭石储量2亿吨。目前已初步形成了矿产品开采、加工、销售的综合性生产经营格局。 登封人民勤劳朴实,热情好客;登封城市,山青水秀,文明卫生,登封资源十分丰富,得天独厚;登封政府笑迎天下客。政策规定:国外、市外在登封投资兴办生产型企业和投资开发旅游项目的,其所得税实行“免二减三”,并在第6年或第10年返还企业30%;从事农、林、科教、医疗、文化娱乐,市政建设的市外投资企业,从获利年度起,所得税实行“免二减三”;利用四荒进行旅游项目开发的,免征土地使用税5-10年;对开发大型重点旅游项目者,增值税中的地方留成部分,前两年凭入库税单由地方财政部门全额返还,第3年至第5年返还50%。土地出让金按最低限额收取,并可分期分批缴纳。供水按最低额50%收取。电费“优先安排,一切从优”。保证措施:市外投资企一业实行挂牌保证,不经政府批准,任何单位或个人不得到外资企业进行检查收费以及进行其它一切活动。对引进资金和推荐项目者实行奖励,根据引进资金的使用期限和利率高低,分别进行1%或8%奖励。

  我们遇见了很多地质现象。

  1.褶皱:褶皱是岩石中的各种面(如层面、面理等)受力发生的弯曲而显示的变形。岩层在形成时,一般是水平的。岩层在构造运动作用下,因受力而发生弯曲,一个弯曲称褶曲,如果发生的是一系列波状的弯曲变形,就叫褶皱。褶皱虽然改变了岩石的原始形态,但岩石并未丧失其连续性和完整性。

  2.崩塌:崩塌,也称崩落、垮塌或塌方,是较陡斜坡上的岩土体在重力作用下突然脱离母体崩落、滚动、堆积在坡脚(或沟谷)的地质现象,地震、融雪、降雨、地表冲刷与浸泡以及不合理的人类活动都可能造成崩塌。崩塌一旦发生,即可能使建筑物遭到毁坏,使公路和铁路被掩埋。

3.断层:断层是地壳岩层因受力达到一定强度而发生破裂,并沿破裂面有明显相对移动的构造而成。地壳中的一个裂口或破裂带,而且沿着它相邻的岩体发生了运动。断层长度变化很大,从几厘米至几百公里不等,两盘之间的位移量也可有这样大的变化。

  我们还知道了嵩阳运动。嵩阳运动是全球构造三大运动之一,也是形成嵩山的重要一个阶段。嵩山嵩阳运动是发生在距今25亿年的一次全球性地壳运动,由张伯声院士于1951年在嵩山南坡发现并命名。“嵩阳运动”地质遗迹界面是划分太古与远古的界限,界面之下是太古宙沉积地层——登峰群;界面之上是古元古代沉积地层——嵩山群。

  界面清晰的反映了太古宙末发生的一次广泛而剧烈的地壳运动。这次运动使登封群花岗绿岩建造遭受挤压变质、褶皱造山、侵蚀夷平‘并形成了具纬向构造格局、多期构造变形和“三个时代”岩浆序列的古陆核。它标志着地球演化早期的一次重大的地质事件。

  嵩山群属滨海——浅海相沉积,与登封群有截然不同的变质,变形和岩浆活动历史,并以角度不整合覆盖于等蜂群不同层位、不同构造部位上。

  嵩阳运动地质遗迹是研究地球演化历史的重要场所,国内独有、世界罕见、不可再生、损而皆无。

  这些天我们走了很多路,看了很多东西,也学会了用罗盘测岩层的走向,倾向,倾角。也对岩石的一些性质进行了了解,并亲自用锤子试各种岩石的硬度等。通过对少林水库的认识和老师的讲解,我们也明白了水库对生态环境的影响以及水库可能引发的灾害,水库的选址也决定了它的蓄水能力及安全性。我知道我要学习的东西还很多,对于一些现象,不能准确的看出引发它的原因以及较好的解决办法。我很高兴参加这次实习,也珍惜和同学,老师在一起学习探讨的时光,愿我们的未来更美好,社会和国家也越来越好。

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  Class: Class One Bridge

  Name: Cheng Pengpeng

  Number: 5708150032

  Practice summary

  After a few days of practice in Dengfeng, we have a certain understanding of the geological situation in Dengfeng. Under the leadership of the teacher, we have to learn the knowledge of the review, but also personally practice a lot, let us benefit a lot.

  First of all, we have an understanding of the geographical location, history and other aspects of Dengfeng. Dengfeng city is located in the central and western part of Henan Province Zhongyue Songshan south, throughout the city from east to West 56 kilometers, 35.5 kilometers wide north-south, with a total area of 122 square kilometers, of which 56 million mu of arable land, 7 of the rural town of 7 jurisdiction two industrial zones 1 office, 15 ethnic groups, terrain in the mountainous area mainly belong to the temperate continental climate, the city's total population of 60 million. Dengfeng city is a famous historical and cultural city, is the famous "township of cultural relics" and "the hometown of martial arts" ". Dengfeng has a long history, according to historical records, China the first slavery state Xia Dynasty the earliest in Yangcheng (now in Gaocheng county) capital (Yudu Yangcheng), Emperor Wudi of the Western Han Dynasty Liu Cheyou pole mountain, officially set up noble County, the Sui Dynasty changed to Songyang county. 696 BC, Wu Zetian board Zhongyue Songshan, sealing, mission accomplished, Songyang County of Dengfeng County, Yangcheng County Gaocheng County, Jin Dynasty the two merged into the county of Dengfeng County, 1994 to May 30, the State Council approved the Dengfeng County removed a county. Dengfeng is very rich in mineral resources. The city has proven ore products of 37 kinds, with large reserves, high grade, easy to exploit and so on. One of the proven reserves of 15.8 tons of coal, long-term reserves of 30 tons, in 1991 was identified as one of the 15 key development zones, the Ministry of energy as one of the country 100 commodity coal base. Aluminum vanadium reserves of 2.4 tons, is one of the two aluminum and vanadium base in Henan province. Limestone reserves of 30 tons. The modern decoration materials of granite reserves of 30 tons, complete varieties, good quality. Silicon ore reserves of 8 tons. By the Ming Dynasty pharmacologist Li Shizhen known as the magical "Songshan stone" - stone reserves of 2 tons. Has initially formed a mining, processing, sales of integrated production and operation pattern. Dengfeng people are industrious and simple, hospitable; Dengfeng City, Shanqingshuixiu, civilized and sanitary, Dengfeng is rich in resources, unique; Dengfeng government welcomes the customers all over the world. Focus on large barren outside of 30% of the implementation of policies and regulations, foreign, outside the city in Dengfeng to invest in production enterprises and investment in the development of tourism projects, the income tax exemption and two minus three ", and in the 6 years or 10 years returned to the enterprises engaged in agriculture, forestry, science, education, health care, culture and entertainment, municipal construction investment enterprises, from the profit-making year, the income tax exemption and two minus three". The tourism project development, shall be exempted from land use tax 5-10 years; on the development of tourism projects, value-added tax in the local retained part, two years ago by storage tax by the local finance department a full refund, the 3 years to 5 years after the return of 50%. Land transfer payments are charged at the minimum, and may be paid in installments. Water supply by the minimum amount of 50%. Electricity "priority arrangement, all preferential". Assurance measures: municipal foreign investment enterprises industry listed on the implementation of the guarantee, approved by the government, any unit or individual not to foreign enterprises inspection fees and all other activities. The introduction of funds and recommend items to the implementation of incentives, according to the introduction of the use of funds and interest rates, respectively, 1% or 8% awards.

  We met a lot of geological phenomena.

  1 fold: fold is a variety of rocks in the surface (such as the level, surface, etc.) by the force of the occurrence of bending and deformation of the display. When the formation of rock strata, the general level of. Rock under the action of tectonic movement, because of the force and bending, a curved said fold, if the occurrence of bending deformation of a series of wavy, called folds. Although the fold changes the original shape of the rock, the rock has not lost its continuity and integrity.

  2. Collapse: collapse, also known as avalanche, collapse or landslide is relatively steep slope of rock and soil mass under the action of gravity suddenly from the maternal caving, rolling, accumulation in the valley at the foot of the slope of the geological phenomena, earthquake, snowmelt, rain, surface erosion and soaking and unreasonable human activities may lead to the collapse. Once the collapse occurs, it is possible to cause the building to be destroyed, so that roads and railways are buried.

  3 fault: fault is the crustal rock stratum because of the force to achieve a certain strength and rupture, and along the rupture surface has obvious relative movement of the structure. A tear or rupture in the earth's crust, and the rock mass that is adjacent to it. Fault length varies greatly, ranging from a few centimeters to several hundred kilometers, the displacement between the two sets can also have such a large change.

  We also know the Songyang movement. Songyang movement is one of the world's three major tectonic movement, also formed an important stage in Songshan. Songshan Songyang movement is occurring in dating back to 25 million years of a global crustal movement, by academician Zhang Bosheng in 1951 in the south of Songshan found and named. "Songyang movement" geological interface is divided Swire and ancient boundaries, the interface is Archean sedimentary strata, Dengfeng group; above the interface is Paleoproterozoic sedimentary strata, Songshan group.

  The interface clearly reflects the occurrence of late Archean an extensive crustal movement. The movement to Dengfeng group granite greenstone building subjected to extrusion metamorphism, fold orogeny and erosion leveled and formed to the tectonic pattern and tectonic deformation and magma series of "three times" oldland weft. It marks a major geological event in the early stage of the earth's evolution.

  Songshan group of coastal shallow marine facies, and the Dengfeng group has distinct metamorphism, deformation and magmatic activity history, and the angle of the unconformity is covered in the different layers of the colony, different parts of the structure.

  Songyang movement geological heritage is a study of the evolution of the earth and the important place, unique to China, rare in the world, non renewable, loss and in tatters.

  We walked a lot these days, saw a lot of things, but also learned to use the compass to measure the direction of rock formations, inclination, dip. Also some of the properties of the rock are understood, and personally with a hammer to test the hardness of all kinds of rocks, etc.. Through the understanding of Shaolin reservoir and the teacher's explanation, we also understand the impact of reservoir on the ecological environment and the reservoir may cause disaster, the location of the reservoir also determines its water storage capacity and safety. I know that I have to learn a lot of things, for some of the phenomenon can not be accurate to see the cause of it and a better solution. I am very happy to take part in this practice, also cherish and students, teachers together to learn to explore the time, we wish our future better, society and the country is also getting better and better.