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土木工程学院工程地质实习报告:登封市某基坑

发布时间:2016-07-27 09:23:54 点击:

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  土木工程学院

  《工程地质》

  实习报告

  专业:土木工程

  班级:

  姓名:

  学号:

  工程地质实习报告

  实习时间: 2016.04.22~2016.04.28

  School of civil engineering

  "Engineering Geology"

  real

  Xi

  newspaper

  Sue

  Major: Civil Engineering

  Class:

  Full name:

  No.:

  Engineering geological practice report

  Internship time: 2016.04.22~2016.04.28

  实习地点: 登封市某基坑

  书院河

  玉煌庙村西

  迎仙阁

  启母阙

  嵩山

  采石场,少林水库

  烈士纪念馆

  实习内容

  1. 我们在登封的第一个下午,在老师的带领下去了一个建筑工地的基坑。基坑中可以看到大大小小的碎石,这是由于登封市处在嵩山的冲积扇下面,其土壤成分是碎石土,这种碎石土承载能力极强,大约能达到400~500kp。嵩山以石英岩为主,硬度比较大。基坑的边坡北面喷有水泥浆,并且上面设有排水孔,如果有积水的话会降低其稳定性。边坡的倾斜程度与用地的紧张程度有关,城市的用地比较紧张,所以这个基坑的边坡倾斜角比较大,而且边坡的防护比较好。

  2. 紧接着,我们又来到了书院河旁边。书院河主要是由山上及河边附近的地方的降水形成,因此水的来源不充足,常常会干涸。沿着河岸往下走,石头会逐渐变小,水的运载量与其流速有关,河道中的石头相对比较圆滑,这是因为在水流的冲刷作用以级石头之间的摩擦,使的石头的棱角逐渐被磨去,慢慢地变得圆滑起来。由于人类活动和近些年的降水逐年减少,书院河的水越来越少,逐渐变为地下暗河。

  沿河岸往下游走,走到一个小村边,老师告诉我们这是玉煌村。在村子的西边有一块大岩石,从老师口中得知这是由于断层形成的。石头的正面有很多因岩石摩擦而留下的节理,节理是由于岩石的运动造成的。在侧面,可以看到岩石的分层破碎,用手轻轻一掰岩石就剥落下来。断层可以分为三类,正断层,逆断层,平移断层。随后,我们分小组在小山包上寻找断层,并拍下了一些照片。

  Practice location: a foundation pit in Dengfeng

  College River

  Yu Huang Miao Village West

  Yingxian Pavilion

  Qimu towers

  Songshan Mountain

  Quarry, Shaolin reservoir

  Martyrs Memorial

  Practice content

  1 in Dengfeng, the first afternoon, in the teacher's lead to a construction site of the foundation pit. Pit can be seen in large and small gravel, which is due to the Dengfeng city in Songshan under the alluvial fan, the soil composition is gravel soil, this gravel soil bearing capacity is very strong, about 400~500kp. Songshan mainly to quartz, hardness is relatively large. The slope of the foundation pit is sprayed with cement slurry, and the above is provided with a drainage hole, if there is water, it will reduce its stability. The slope degree is related to the degree of land use, the city's land use is relatively tight, so the slope of the pit slope is relatively large, and the slope of the protection is relatively good.

  2 then, we came to the college next to the river. The river is mainly formed by precipitation of the mountains and near the river, so the source of the water is not enough and often dries up. Walk down along the banks of the river, the stone, will gradually become small, water carrying capacity and velocity, stones in the river relatively smooth. This is because in the scouring action of water to the friction between the stone and the edges and corners of the stone has been refining its stand, slowly become smooth. As a result of human activities in recent years and the precipitation decreased year by year, the river water is less and less, gradually into the underground river.

Walk down along the river, go to a small village, the teacher told us that this is the jade huang village. In the west of the village there is a big rock, from the teacher mouth that this is due to the formation of the fault. The front of the stone has a lot of joints due to the friction of the rock, which is caused by the movement of the rock. In the side, you can see the layered rock broken, with a hand gently breaking off the rock. Faults can be divided into three types, normal faults, reverse faults, and translational faults. Later, we divided the team on the hill to find the fault, and took some photos.

  3.

  跟随老师走到一个峭壁下,这个峭壁面朝北,常年受风,水流的侵蚀,是典型的岩石风化。风化一般分为三类,生物风化,化学风化,物理风化。我们走进风化的岩壁,其表面的岩石十分疏松,用锤子轻轻敲几下就会有碎石剥落下来,表明这个岩壁已经风化十分严重了,而且在岩壁下的地上有厚厚的一层沙石。经过了半天的实习我们虽然很累,但是学到了很多知识,心里十分高兴。

  4. 第二天由于天气原因,我们只有下午才出去了,老师带着我们徒步来到迎仙阁,迎仙阁位于登封市西部。迎仙阁大概有300多个台阶,但是这对于我们这些年轻人来说,并不算什么。登上迎仙阁之后,可以看到整个登封市的概貌,登封市三面环山,整体呈北高南低,呈扇形分布,也更加证实登封市是在嵩山的冲积扇下。我们略作休息,然后向一个亭子徒步而去,中途也观察了这里的山脉走向,以及其他的一些断层。

  5. 这是我们实习的第三天,上午在老师的带领下来到了治水英雄大禹的妻子的故居,沿着启母阙后面的曲径我们来到了启母石的旁边。这块石头有一个传说,就是当年大禹治水时候感动上天,上天把他变成一个力大无比的大熊,然后他就在山上不断的推石头,以此来治理水患,后来以此他妻子去给他送饭的时候发现他变成了大熊的秘密,启母很伤心,坐在家里哭了好久,最终她变成了一块石头。大禹看没人给他送饭,于是自己回家看看是什么情况,结果就发现了他妻子变成了一块大石头。他对这块石头说:“我还要治水,没有后代将来我死了谁来治水,你还没有把我的后代生下来你怎么能变成石头呢”.大禹说完后突然石头就裂开来,从里面出来一个男婴,这个孩子就是后来的启。我们在启母石的旁边练习罗盘的使用。罗盘不仅仅可以看方向,也可以测石头的夹角,倾角以及倾向。

6.吃过午饭,略作休息,我们又开始了我们的嵩山之行。走在山间曲曲折折的小路中,走了一段后我们来到一个峡谷中,峡谷中到处可见散落的巨石,我们停在一个峭壁下,根据老师的分析,中间的一段是由岩浆冲入冷却形成。而且这段岩石风化的特别厉害,可以看到许多剥落下来的岩石,而且由于风化程度不同两边的岩石的颜色明显要比中间的深,这就是岩石严重风化的证据。我们略停一会儿,就继续往前爬,台阶路走了好久,一路上的确很累,但是我们都坚持下来,最终,我们停在了一块写有嵩阳运动的石碑前停了下来。在这段崖壁下,是距今25亿年的一次全球性的地质运动形成的。岩石呈层状分布,它既是不整合面,也是古风化面,又是受后期构造运动的影响顺嵩山群山底面滑脱的构造面。界面上清晰的反映了太古宙末发生的一次广泛而剧烈的地壳运动。这是国内独有,世界罕见。随后我们又继续往上爬,决定要爬上峻极峰。石阶很多,不过我一点也不害怕,一步一步的向上爬。最终爬到了顶峰。爬到峰顶时候已经是5点多了,山顶很冷,但是因为爬到顶峰的兴奋,所以我依旧很高兴。等到我们都上顶后我们就下山。作为一群年轻人,比较喜欢走不寻常的路,于是我们就一不小心走了一个小路,这是一个驴友开辟的小路。结果可想而知,我们的路很难走,结果天黑了我们仍然没有下山。于是我们就在山里走了一晚上,不管有多累吧,至少我们患难与共,而且都平安的下了山,或许这将来会是我们一段美好的回忆。

  7. 在山上待了一晚上,我们上午补充睡眠和体力,下午我们乘车来到采石场,在采石场我们看到了各种类型的岩石。花岗岩是一种岩浆在地表以下冷却形成的火成岩,主要是长石和石英。它是由石英,斜长石组成的酸性侵入岩,半自形粒状结构或斑状结构,块状结构。随后,我们去了少林水库,在少林水库的坝上,老师给我们讲课。因为此水库紧邻少林寺,故名为少林水库。大坝的选址十分重要,因为大坝的选址既要考虑是否对周围环境有较大影响,还要考虑水坝选址对水坝的蓄水能力的影响,世界上常常有因为选址不当而导致大坝的垮塌。

  8. 我们最后一次来到登封市革命烈士纪念馆,它坐落于登封市区中岳大街西段,始建于1971年占地面积约3万平方米。1980年6月第一期工程竣工,1990年秋第二期工程至1991年清明节落成开馆。纪念馆俯瞰登封市区,气势雄伟镶嵌在登封市区的一颗明珠,馆内从低到高一共10个台阶,革命烈士纪念大厅和登封革命陈列馆的建筑,长35.7米,宽13.3米,高9.5米。这是对革命先烈的一种怀念,希望我们永不忘先烈。

  实习结束了,我们收获很大,我们不仅仅收获了知识,还得到了其他的锻炼,这种机会很少,我们应该好好珍惜以及整理自己这短短一周的所得。

  Three

  Following the teacher walked up to a cliff, the cliff facing north, perennial wind, water erosion, is typical of rock weathering. Weathering is generally divided into three categories, biological weathering, chemical weathering, physical weathering. We entered the weathering of rock, the surface of the rock is very loose, with a hammer knocking gently on the few there will be stripped off the gravel, show that the rock has weathered is very serious, and there is a thick layer of sand on the cliffs of. After a long time of practice, although we are very tired, but learned a lot of knowledge, the heart is very happy.

  4. The next day because of the weather, we only in the afternoon before out, the teacher with we hiked to Yingxian Pavilion, Yingxian Pavilion is located in the western city of Dengfeng. Yingxian pavilion has about more than and 300 steps, but it is for us the young people, is not what. Boarded the Yingxian Pavilion, you can see the outline of the Dengfeng City, Dengfeng city is surrounded by mountains on three sides, whole is high in the north and south, a fan-shaped distribution, also more confirmation of Dengfeng city is in the Songshan alluvial fan. We slightly rest, then a pavilion to go on foot, midway also observed here to the mountains, and other some faults.

  5. This is the third day of our attachment to the morning in the guidance of the teacher came to the residence of Dayu flood hero's wife, along the winding paths of Qimu que behind we came to the Qimu stone next to. This stone is a legend, is the year Dayu was touched by God, God put him into a very large power of the bear, he then in the mountains continuously push stone, in order to flood control and later in order to his wife to give him to send rice found him into the secrets of the big bear, Qimu very sad, sitting down at home and cry for a long time. Eventually she turned into the stone. Da Yu see no one to give him a meal, so he went home to see what is the case, the results found his wife turned into a big rock. He of the Stone said: "I would also like to flood control, no offspring I die in the future who will flood, you haven't my offspring born how can you become a stone?". Dayu finished suddenly the stone broke apart, from the inside out a baby boy, the child was later start. We practice in the use of the compass Qimu beside the stone. Compass can not only look at the direction, but also can measure the angle of the stone, dip and inclination.

  6 after lunch, a rest, we started our trip to Songshan. Walk in the twists and turns the mountain path. After walking for a while we came to a canyon, canyon everywhere scattered boulders, we stopped at a cliff. According to the analysis of the teacher, in the middle of a period is by magmatic rushed into the cooled to form. And the section of rock weathering is particularly fierce, you can see many stripping down the rock and the weathering degree is different on both sides of the rock, and the color was significantly higher than that in the middle of the deep, this is seriously weathered rock evidence. We stopped for a while, will continue to go up, the steps all the way to go for a long time, the road is indeed very tired, but we have persevered. Eventually, we stopped in the a piece of writing is Songyang movement of stone tablets, and stopped. In this section under the cliff, is now a global geological movement 2 billion 500 million years of formation. Rock distribution is layered, it is not only the unconformity and weathering surface, and is affected by tectonic movement along the Songshan Mountains detachment structural surface. The interface clearly reflects the occurrence of late Archean an extensive crustal movement. This is unique in the world, the world is rare. We then decided to continue to climb, climb the Junji peak. A lot of steps, but I'm not a bit afraid, step by step to climb. Finally climbed to the top. Climb to the peak time is more than 5, the top of the mountain is very cold, but because the climb to the top of the excitement, so I am still very happy. When we all go up and then we'll go down. As a group of young people, prefer to take the unusual way, so we must be careful to walk up a path, which is to open up a path. The results can be imagined, our road is difficult to go, the results of the dark we still have not down the mountain. So we in the mountains away one night, no matter how tired, at least we rise or fall as one nation, as one people and peace came down from the mountain, perhaps this will is some fond memories of us.

  7 on the mountain for a night, we added sleep and physical strength, in the afternoon we drove to the quarry, in the quarry we saw all kinds of rock. Granite is a kind of igneous rock formed by the cooling of magma below the surface of the earth. It is mainly composed of feldspar and quartz. It is composed of quartz, plagioclase composed of acidic intrusive rocks, subhedral granular structure or porphyritic texture, massive structure. Then, we went to the Shaolin reservoir, the dam on the Shaolin reservoir, the teacher gave us a lesson. Because the reservoir near Shaolin Temple, named for the Shaolin reservoir. The dam site is very important, because the dam site is to consider how it might have had a greater impact on the surrounding environment, but also consider the dam site of dam water storage capacity. The world is often because of inappropriate siting and cause the dam to collapse. 8. We last came to Dengfeng City of revolutionary martyrs memorial hall. It is located in Dengfeng City Zhongyue Street West, founded in 1971, covers an area of about 30000 square meters. In June 1980 completed the first phase of the project, the autumn of 1990, the second phase of the project to the completion of the opening in 1991 Tomb-sweeping Day. Memorial overlooking the Dengfeng City, the momentum of the magnificent mosaic in a jewel in the Dengfeng City, the museum from low to high, a total of 10 steps, revolutionary martyr memorial hall and Dengfeng Revolution Museum building, 35.7 meters long, 13.3 meters wide and 9.5 meters high. This is a kind of nostalgia for the revolutionary martyrs, hope that we will never forget the martyrs.

  The end of the internship, we harvest a lot, we not only gain knowledge, but also get other exercise, this opportunity is very little, we should cherish and tidy up their own this short week of income.