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工程地质实习总结

发布时间:2016-07-27 09:23:58 点击:

  工程地质实习总结

  实习教学的基本内容和实习方式:

  1、实习内容

  工程地质实习地点安排在登封地区,在实习线路上,设置了三大岩类——岩浆岩、沉积岩、变质岩认识实习,地层与地质构造——褶皱、节理、断层认识实习,特殊土——黄土、膨胀土认识实习,不良地质现象——崩塌、滑坡、岩溶现象认识实习,水库工程地质问题、边坡工程地质问题认识实习,工程地质勘察实习等项目。

  2.实习方式:

  按照路线布置实习内容,对重复出现的实习内容介绍侧重点要有所不同。

第一天:(1)基坑场地:工程项目的内容,勘察方法,边坡危险的防护方法。(2)书院河:书院河干旱的原因,石块的来源。(3)郑少洛高速公路:对上下坡的防护方法。(4)玉皇庙村西:对断层的认识,断层的分类,如何识别断层,影响岩石风化的因素。

  第二天:迎仙阁:认识了什么是洪积扇,用卷尺测量岩石的粒径,了解土的成因类型。

  第三天:(1)启母阙:认识了崩塌,崩塌的成因,崩塌的防治方法。(2)峻极峰:认识了岩墙,找到了嵩阳运动的标志。

  第四天:(1)采石场:石材的特点及使用,石英岩与石英砂岩的区别,建立石材厂要考虑的因素。(2)少林水库:水利工程利与弊,少林水库工程地质问题,观察岩墙的方法。

第五天:(1)吴家门:认识了节理,清楚了节理的分类,知道了节理的发育程度,岩浆岩与沉积岩的构造特征。(2)白坪:认识了滑坡,对滑坡有了很好的分类,了解了滑坡的因素,滑坡灾害预防与整治的方法。介绍了黄土的特征及其防治黄土湿陷性的工程措施。
第六天:(1)烈士陵园:花岗岩与石灰岩的介绍,岩石的结构分类。(2)博物馆:三大岩石的转化,观察各类岩石,矿物,介绍嵩山的矿产资源

  本次实习是《工程地质学》课程的野外实习,《工程地质学》是一门实践性很强的且直接面向大自然的学科.这次实习要求学生能将课程上所学到的理论知识灵活的运用到野外的工作中,了解工程地质的常规工作方法、步骤,培养野外工作的基本技能,能够灵活地解决常见的工程地质问题等。我选择的题目以及报告内容如下:

  少林水库坝区工程地质问题及稳定性评价

  少林水库位于河南省登封市城关镇郭店村下游400m处的少阳河上,属淮河流域沙颖河水系,控制流域面积41km2,总库容1154万m3,是一座以防洪为主,兼顾城市供水、灌溉、养殖等综合利用的中型水库。 该水库于1958年10月动工兴建,1960年5月停工,完成坝高20m。1971年8月续建加高,1972年10月竣工,最大坝高40.35m。水库主要建筑物包括大坝、溢洪道和输水洞等部分,均为Ⅲ级建筑物。少林水库位于河南省登封市境内,紧邻少林寺,故名少林水库。该水库按50年一遇频率设计,1000年一遇频率校核,养鱼水面400亩,设计灌溉面积16000亩。该水库一期工程于1958年10月开始,完成大坝高15米。第二期工程于1971年11月开工,1972年12月竣工。1980年,河南省水利厅决定对该水库进行复核,溢洪道 扩宽加深,增加堰顶长度,降低堰顶高度,对大坝进行灌浆补强,工程于1981年10月竣工。1985年7月,少林水库被定为市区供水水源。

  修建水库可能需考虑的工程地质问题有:

  1.有没有水源;

  2.地下土层的构造;

  3.地理位置的优越性。

  少林水库是一个问题水库,最重要的问题在于选址不当,选在了断层所处的位置,存在着巨大的安全隐患。兴建水库可能会诱发地震,增加库区及附近地区地震发生的频率。山区的水库由于两岸山体下部未来长期处于浸泡之中,发生山体滑坡、塌方和泥石流的频率会有所增加。兴修水库还会引起局部小气候的变化;影响鱼类回游,造成局部鱼类减少;影响下游居民用水。

  少林水库确实是对登封市民的饮水问题以及工业用水有一定的帮助,但也无法逃避它具有安全隐患的事实,少林水库工程地质问题最重要的就是防渗漏问题,其选址选在了断裂带位置,渗漏问题严重。少林水库蓄水量并不高,远远低于设计蓄水量,而且去年登封市缺水的时候少林水库也干了,并没有起到多大作用。由此得到结论,修建水库一定要防止修建在断裂带位置。

  总结起来,修建水库最重要的要考虑的几点如下:

  一:安全性问题--稳定性问题

  抗滑移稳定性和抗倾覆稳定性

二:环境问题

  嵩阳运动是全球构造三大运动之一,也是形成嵩山的重要一个阶段。在地球演变的编年史上,地球的年龄约在46亿年左右,而嵩山距今已有36亿年的历史。当整个世界还沉浸在一片汪洋大海之中时,嵩山便横空出世,嵩山嵩阳运动是发生在距今25亿年的一次全球性地壳运动,由张伯声院士于1951年在嵩山南坡发现并命名。“嵩阳运动”地质遗迹界面是划分太古与元古的界限,界面之下是太古宙沉积地层——登峰群;界面之上是古元古代沉积地层——嵩山群。界面清晰的反映了太古宙末发生的一次广泛而剧烈的地壳运动。这次运动使登封群花岗绿岩建造遭受挤压变质、褶皱造山、侵蚀夷平,并形成了具纬向构造格局、多期构造变形和“三个时代”岩浆序列的古陆核。它标志着地球演化早期的一次重大的地质事件。其中的砾岩层是太古代和古元古代的分界。中岳运动是发生在嵩山地区古元古代嵩山期沉积之后,新元古代五佛山期沉积以前的一次强烈造山运动。五佛山群呈高角度不整合覆于嵩山群及登封群各组之上,发生于距今8亿年左右。中岳运动使整个嵩山群(罗汉洞组、五指岭组、庙坡组、花峪组)协调一致地产生紧密的走向近南北、轴面向西倾斜、向东倒转的复式背斜和复式向斜。中岳运动的显著标志为底砾岩。

  Summary of engineering geological practice

  The basic content and practice mode of practice teaching:

  1, practice content

  Engineering geology internship sites arranged in the Dengfeng area, in practice on the line, set up three categories -- igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks of the cognition practice, stratigraphy and geological structures, folds and joints, faults cognition practice, special soil, loess, expansive soil cognition practice, bad geological phenomenon, collapse, landslide, karst phenomena cognition practice, engineering geological problems of reservoir, slope engineering geological problems understanding practice, engineering geological survey practice project.

  2 practice mode:

  In line with the practice of the content of the course, to repeat the contents of the introduction of the emphasis should be different.

  On the first day: (1) the foundation pit: the content of the project, the survey method, the risk of slope protection method. (2) the river: the cause of the dry river, the source of the stone. (3) Zheng Shaoluo expressway: the protection method for the upper and the upper slope. (4) the Jade Emperor Temple West of the village: understanding of fault, fault classification, how to identify the fault influencing factors of rock weathering.

  The second day: Welcome: Xiange know what is alluvial fan, measure rock particle size, understand the genetic types of soil.

  The third day: (1): the Qimu towers collapse, the collapse of the causes, prevention method of collapse. (2) Junji peak: awareness of the dyke, found signs of Songyang movement.

  Fourth days: (1) the quarry: the characteristics and use of stone, the difference between quartz and quartz sandstone, the establishment of a stone factory to consider the factors. (2) Shaolin reservoir: the advantages and disadvantages of the water conservancy project, reservoir engineering geological problems of Shaolin, observe the dyke.

  Fifth days: (1) Wu's house: know the joint, clear the classification of joint, know the degree of development of joints, magmatic rock and sedimentary rock structural characteristics. (2) white Ping: understanding of the landslide, the landslide has a good classification, understanding the factors of landslide, landslide disaster prevention and treatment methods. This paper introduces the characteristics of loess and the engineering measures for its prevention and treatment.

  The sixth day: (1) the Martyrs Cemetery: Granite and limestone, rock structure classification. (2) Museum: the transformation of the three major rocks, observation of various types of rocks, minerals, introduction of mineral resources in Songshan

  This practice is "Engineering Geology" in the course of field practice, "Engineering Geology" is a course with very strong and directly facing the nature of the subject. The internship requires students to the theoretical knowledge learned in courses on flexible application to the field of work, understanding of engineering geology of the conventional methods of work, and the cultivation of basic skills for the field work, the main engineering geological problems can be solved flexibly etc.. I chose the title as well as the contents of the report as follows:

  Evaluation of engineering geological problems in dam area and the stability of Shaolin reservoir

  Shaolin reservoirs in Chengguan town of Dengfeng City of Henan Province, Guo Dian Cun 400m downstream of Shaoyang River, Huaihe River Shaying river system, control drainage area 41km2, with a total capacity of 11.54 million m3, a flood control, taking into account the urban water supply, irrigation, aquaculture and other comprehensive utilization of the medium water pool. The reservoir to start construction in May 1960, in October 1958, the completion of the dam height of 20m. Until August 1971 high, completed in October 1972, the maximum dam height of 40.35m. The main buildings include reservoir dam, spillway and water hole etc. Part III buildings are. The reservoir is located in Dengfeng City, Henan Province, adjacent to Shaolin Temple, named Shaolin reservoir. The reservoir is 50 year frequency design, 1000 year frequency check, pisciculture 400 acres, 16000 acres of irrigated area design. The first phase of the project started in October 1958, the completion of the dam 15 meters high. The second phase of the project started in December 1972, completed in November 1971. In 1980, the Henan Province Water Conservancy Department decided to review the reservoir, spillway of broadening and deepening, increased crest length, reduce height of weir, dam grouting reinforcement engineering in October 1981 completion. In July 1985, Shaolin reservoir was designated as urban water supply.

  The engineering geological problems which may need to be considered in the construction of the reservoir are:

  1 there is no water source;

  2 structure of underground soil layer;

  3 the superiority of geographical position.

  Shaolin reservoir is a problem reservoir, the most important problem is that improper siting, the location of the fault in the election, there is a huge security risk. Construction of the reservoir may induce earthquakes and increase the frequency of earthquakes in the reservoir area and nearby areas. Mountain reservoir due to the lower part of the future of the two sides of the mountain in the future long-term in the soak, the occurrence of landslides, landslides and debris flow frequency will be increased. Irrigation reservoir will cause changes in the local climate; affect fish migration, resulting in the reduction of local fish; influence downstream residents of water.

  Shaolin reservoir is indeed of Dengfeng public drinking water and industrial water have some help, but also cannot escape from it has security risks of fact, Shaolin reservoir engineering geological problems of the most important is the anti leakage problems, the location selected in the fault zone, serious leakage problem. Shaolin reservoir water is not high, far less than the design of water storage, but last year, when the water shortage in Dengfeng Shaolin reservoir has done, and did not play much role. It is concluded that the construction of the reservoir must prevent the construction of the location of the fault zone.

  To sum up, the most important considerations of the construction of the reservoir are as follows:

  A: security issues - stability issues

  Stability against sliding and overturning stability

  Two: environmental issues

  Songyang movement is one of the world's three major tectonic movement, also formed an important stage in Songshan. In the annals of the evolution of the earth, the age of the earth in about 4 billion 600 million years, while Songshan now has 3 billion 600 million years of history. When the whole world still immersed in the midst of a vast ocean, Songshan and D-Will, Songshan Songyang movement is occurring in dating back to 25 million years of a global crustal movement, by academician Zhang Bosheng in 1951 in the south of Songshan found and named. "Songyang movement" geological interface is a division of Archean and Proterozoic boundary. Under the interface is Archean sedimentary strata, Dengfeng group; above the interface is Paleoproterozoic sedimentary strata, Songshan group. The interface clearly reflects the occurrence of late Archean an extensive crustal movement. The movement to Dengfeng group granite greenstone building subjected to extrusion modification, orogenic, planation surface, and the formation of the latitude to tectonic framework and tectonic deformation and magma series of "three times" continental nucleus. It marks a major geological event in the early stage of the earth's evolution. The conglomerate layer is the boundary between the ancient and the Proterozoic. Zhongyue movement is occurring in the Mt. Songshan area after the deposition of Paleoproterozoic Songshan, Neoproterozoic Foshan five sedimentary period before a strong orogeny. Five Foshan group was a high point of view of the Songshan group and Dengfeng group is not integrated over the group, occurred in about 800 million years ago. Zhongyue movement the Songshan group (Lohan cave group, five Ling group, Miaopo formation, Flower Valley Group) coordination to produce close to the near North and south, axial plane westward tilt, to the east of the reversal of the anticlinorium and compound syncline. The marked movement of the bottom conglomerate.